What is cerebral palsy? Cerebral palsy's a term used to describe a wide range of issues that have to do with muscle movements that result from some trauma or injury to the brain during development. Subscribe - https://goo.gl/w5aaaV. More videos - https://goo.gl/UhOKiM. Support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZGHEk4. This video covers the three primary categories of cerebral palsy—spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic. It also covers other symptoms and common treatment methods. Subscribe - http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNI0qOojpkhsUtaQ4_2NUhQ?sub_confirmation=1 This video is brought to you by Osmosis. Along with providing open-access videos, Osmosis offers a comprehensive e-learning platform that connects med students with thousands of flashcards and quiz questions, depending on each student's needs. Ever wish information would just diffuse into your brain? Well, Osmosis helps make that possible—don't learn it, osmose it! https://www.osmosis.org/ Support us on Patreon! - https://goo.gl/izRx2z We also have free practice questions for the USMLE and NCLEX-RN exams here: https://goo.gl/3oGOEi Also, we're social: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/OsmoseIt/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/osmoseit Got feedback? We'd love to hear it! http://goo.gl/forms/T6de48NVzR This video is licensed under a Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 4.0 international license, which means that you're free to share and adapt it so long as you follow the Attribution and ShareAlike terms and conditions! Resources: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-etiology-and-prevention-of-cerebral-palsy?source=search_result&search=cerebral+palsy&selectedTitle=2~150 http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1179555-treatment#d9 http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_palsy Credits: Script/audio/visuals: Tanner Marshall, MS Reviewer: Rishi Desai, MD, MPH Attributions: Glass cookie jar sound effect by Mike Koenig - http://soundbible.com/314-Glass-Cookie-Jar.html
medskl.com is a global, free open access medical education (FOAMEd) project covering the fundamentals of clinical medicine with animations, lectures and concise summaries. medskl.com is working with over 170 award-winning medical school professors to provide content in 200+ clinical presentations for use in the classroom and for physician CME. Neurology – Weakness, Paralysis, Paresis and/or Loss of Motion Whiteboard Animation Transcript with Charles Kassardjian, MD https://medskl.com/Module/Index/weakness-paralysis-paresis-and-loss-of-motion Weakness can be due to a large number of problems arising anywhere from the brain, to the spinal cord, to the peripheral nerves, to the neuromuscular junction and the muscles themselves. Weakness can develop acutely over hours to days, or more slowly over months to years. Acute weakness is a medical emergency that can lead to disability or death, and some conditions have treatments that must be given within a short time window. Here are 5 causes of acute weakness you cannot afford to miss. 1. Stroke: Time is brain, and minutes matter. Thrombolysis is given for ischemic stroke, and needs to be given within 4.5 hours of when the patient was last seen well. Think of this diagnosis when the weakness develops and peaks over minutes to a few hours, and there is unilateral weakness, unilateral sensory loss, dysarthria, aphasia, or ataxia. Patients need urgent CT imaging of the brain. 2. Myelopathy and cauda equina syndrome: Think of this in anyone presenting with a combination of paraparesis or quadriparesis, back pain, bowel and/or bladder dysfunction, or saddle anesthesia. Urgent MRI is needed to rule out disc herniation or mass, which may require urgent surgical decompression. 3. Guillain-Barré syndrome: Think of this in someone presenting with diffuse symmetric weakness developing over days to weeks, usually progressing from the legs up to the arms and face, mild sensory symptoms, and reduced or absent reflexes. Patients can develop swallowing and respiratory weakness that requires ICU care. 4. Myasthenia gravis: Think of this in someone who presents with diffuse weakness, no sensory symptoms, ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, and fluctuating weakness. Acute exacerbations of myasthenia gravis can lead to swallowing and respiratory weakness, and therefore needs emergent assessment. 5. West Nile Virus: Think of this in someone who presents during the summer or early fall with diffuse or patchy weakness without sensory symptoms. Patients might have a preceding febrile illness, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea or diarrhea, or meningeal symptoms like headache or stiff neck.
A case of Geotropic Horizontal (Lateral) Canal Positional Vertigo is presented. Note: At the end of the video Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal is briefly discussed. When the Gufoni maneuver is performed for apogeotropic HC BPPV, roughly half of the patients will be transitioned to a geotropic HC BPPV, and so will need the appropriate Gufoni maneuver for Geotropic HC BPPV as described in the video.
In the presence of hemifacial paresis, whether or not the patient raise the brow on the affect side of the face is an important differential between a less serious and more serious clinical diagnosis. This video explains the mechanisms behind the findings.
Bilateral vocal fold paralysis is a condition that can cause difficulty breathing. When both vocal folds are paralyzed, they are usually immobilized close to the midline. Thus, closure is usually adequate, permitting acceptable voice and swallowing; however, breathing is usually very difficult. • Causes of bilateral vocal fold paralysis include stroke or other neurologic conditions (especially a childhood condition known as Arnold-Chiari malformation), thyroid cancer, or surgery such as major brain surgery or thyroidectomy. • Symptoms of bilateral vocal fold paralysis includes difficulty breathing, which increases with effort; people with this condition may find that they are severely restricted in how far they can walk, or in how heavy a load they can carry. Often there is a wheezy noise when breathing, which can cause this condition to be mistaken for asthma. Asthma that fails to improve with appropriate medicines and inhalers requires that a physician examine the larynx and vocal folds. • Diagnosis is generally based on the patient’s history and an examination of the vocal folds with an endoscope. Occasionally, an electromyogram (EMG) test may be necessary to evaluate the neurologic status of the larynx. • Treatment & Prognosis: Treatment of bilateral vocal fold paralysis often requires making some difficult choices. As is true in all voice disorders, nothing can take the place of a detailed discussion with your treatment team. The main issue in the treatment of bilateral vocal fold paralysis is whether or not the vocal folds are far enough apart to allow safe breathing. In many cases, the safest initial treatment is a tracheostomy—a breathing hole directly into the windpipe—to guarantee the airway until other plans are made. There are procedures (such as arytenoidectomy and cordotomy) to allow adequate airway and permit removal of the tracheostomy. However, all of these may cause some deterioration of voice quality, and sometimes may create problems swallowing.